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Post Info TOPIC: Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita


Guru

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Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita
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Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dik****ar (Post No.4513)

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Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dik****ar (Post No.4513)


WRITTEN by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 18 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  21-18

 

 

Post No. 4513

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

 

In 1886 Rev G U Pope published the translation of Tamil Veda Tirukkural. Before Dr Pope, Ellis has published a translation. Father Beschi translated it into Latin before them. Dr Pope has compared the Bhagavd Gita and Tiukkural. In our time C Rajagopalachari did compare both Gita and Kural.

 

Dr G U Pope in his appendix with notes gives the following comparisons:

Tirukkural couplet No.1 = Bhagavad Gita 10-33

Chapter 2 Rain= B G 3-14

Chapter 4 = B G Chapter 18

Tirukkural 35= BG 16-21

Tirukkural 126 = BG 2-58

Tirukkural 133= BG 3-35, 18-47

Tirukkural 341-350= BG II chapter

Tirukkural 360= B G II -62,63

Tirukkural 605 = BG 14-8

Tirukkural 622 = 18-70/74

 

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Did Valluvar copy Manu, Gita and Kamasutra?

V R Ramachandra Dik****ar (lecturer in Indian History, University of Madras) says that Tiruvalluvar might have used several materials from Manu Smrti, Bhagavad Gita and Vatsayana’s Kamasutra, in his book Studies in Tamil Literature in 1936

 

Dik****ar says,”If Parimelalagar’s views could be adopted, then the author of Kural must have been familiar with Sanskrit literature, especially the Dharmashastra and the Arthshastra literature. If this position can be accepted, it is reasonable to assume that Tiruvalluvar follows mainly in his Arathupal the most popular Dharmashaastra of Manu, in his porutpal, the well known Arthashaastra of Kautilya, and in his Kamathu pal, The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana. To these may be added Ramayana and Mahabharata and allied literature. Whether Valluvar’s Muppaal (another name for Tirukkural) is an independent growth or is indebted to Sanskrit literature, it is for future research to determine conclusively. As it is there is a remarkable Parnellism between the Kural and the Sanskrit books above referred to

 

He had dealt with this more elaborately than DR G U Pope. Here is the list according to Dik****ar:

 

Kural 1

A, as is first of letters, every speech maintains;

The Primal Deity is first through all the world’s domains

The Bhagavad Gita (10-33) expresses similar ideas; ‘I am the letter A among the alphabets’ (10-33)

 

xxx

Kural 4

His feet, who over the full blown flower hath past, who gain

In bliss long time shall dwell above this earthly plain.

The Gita (18-61) says, ‘Arjuna! The Lord lives in the hearts of all creatures, making them move about machine like Maya.

xxx

Kural 11

By the continuance of rain the world is preserved in existence; it is therefore worthy to be called ambrosia.

The Bhagavad Gita (3-14) furnishes a parallel: Man depends for his existence on food, and the source of foodstuff is rain.

 

xxx

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Kural 24

He who controls his five senses by his will

gains heavenly bliss

The Gita furnishes a parallel (2-61): Having restrained the five senses and brought them under control and having fixed one’s mind on me, one attains the divine knowledge.

xxx

Kural 34

To be of pure, spotless mind is real virtue; all else is of no avail.

The Gita (16-1) has the following: Fearlessness, spotless purity, stability of knowledge and yoga gift, peace of mind, sacrifice and learning constitute real tapas/penance.

 

xxx

Kural 41

The men of household virtue, firm in way of good, sustain

The other orders three that rule professes maintain

The Manu Dharma Shastra says: As the members of the three asrmas are maintained by one householder everyday by Janna and food, the asrama of the householder is said to be the best. Manu 3-78 and 6-89.

 

xxx

Kural 43

 

The paramount duty of a house holder is to cherish daily the manes, God, guests, kindred, self.

In the Manusmrti (3-72), ‘he who does not cherish the God, guests, servants, manes and self, is dead  though he physically  lives.

 

xxx

 

Kural 51

A wife of excellent virtues who is capable managing the household within the means of her husband is a real household help in home life.

 

The Dharmashastra has the following idea: A wife should always be joyous, skilled in domestic duties, helpful and economic in expenditure.

 



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Part 2 of Tirukkural and Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dik****ar (Post No.4516)

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Tirukkural and Bhagavad Gita compared by Rev G U Pope and VRR Dik****ar -Part 2

 

Compiled by London Swaminathan 

 

Date: 19 DECEMBER 2017 

 

Time uploaded in London-  7-53 am

 

 

Post No. 4516

Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks.

 

Following is from the book STUDIES IN TAMIL LITERATURE, V R RAMACHANDRA DIK****AR, LECTURER IN INDIAN HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS, YEAR 1936)

 

KURAL 53

There is no lack within the house, where wife in worth excels;

There is no luck within the house, where wife dishonoured dwells

 

Manu gives expression to similar sentiments:

Where women are honoured, there the God dwells; in the houses where they are not honoured, everything done become fruitless- Manu 3-56 also 9-26

xxx

Kural 57

Of what avail is watch and ward?

Honour is a woman’s safest guard.

Similar ideas are found in Manava Dharma Sastra.

Those women who are bound by restraints by her won devoted kinsmen are not truly protected; those who guard themselves are well protected- Mnau 9-12

xxxx

Kural 58

If wife be wholly true to him who gained her as his bride,

Great glory gains she in the world where gods in bliss abide.

Manu furnishes a parallel:

She who will not abuse her rights either by mind, speech or body, attains the world of Pativratas (holy chaste women) and is styled Saadhvi or the good by the righteous- Manu5-165

xxx

Kural 82

Though food of immortality should crown the board,

Feasting alone, the guests without unfed, is thing abhorred.

Similar ides are found in the Dharmasastra:

A householder is to partake of the food remaining after he has fed the gods, sages, guests, manes, and household deities. He who prepares food for the sake of self, simply eats sin—Manu 3-117, also 118, 106

(Also in Bhagavad Gita 3-13)

xxx

Kural 91

Pleasant words are words with all pervading love that burn;

words from his guileless mouth who can the very truth discerns.

The same ideas occur in Manu Smrti:

Speak the Truth; speak pleasant things.

Do not speak unpleasant and false words; speak pleasant and truthful words- Manu 4-138

xxx

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Kural 121

Self Control places a man among gods; the want of it sends him to the hideous darkness of hell.

Manu says that the indulgence of sense organs leads to evil without doubt; having controlled them, one attains salvation- Manu 2-93

xxx

Kural 134

Though he forget, the Brahmin may regain his Vedic lore;

Failing in ‘decorum due’, birthright is gone for evermore.

In the Laws of Manu, it is said that a Brahmin who is devoid of decorum will not attain the fruits of the study of the Vedas. On the other hand, one who observes decorum will reap the full reward—Manu 1-109

 

xxx

Kural 144

How great so’ver they be, what gain have they of life,

Who not a whit reflecting, seek a neighbour’s wife?

Manu’s remarks are appropriate:

There is no other thing which results in diminution of life than the fact of a person’s criminal intimacy with the neighbour’s wife- Manu 4-134

xxx

 

V R R Dik****ar gives 85 more comparisons. I will list all of them.



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